This first section deals with the basics of physiology which include how the body maintains homeostasis, different kinds of feedbacks the body gives us, and many ways to measure those feedbacks or changes in the body. The first level needs to start with the basics before it gets too complicated. Even before the level of chemistry in the body, is how and what maintains our equilbruim. There are numerous glands, chemicals, and tissues that begin the level of constant state of being.

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Homeostasis needs to be maintained at a constant rate in order for the body to maintain its normal functions. The best example that helps me to remember how homeostasis works is body temperature. On a hot summer day when your body begins to overheat, a sensor in you brain detects that your body needs to cool down. The brain then sends a message to the effectors, or the sweat glands, to lower body heat through perspiration. Once your sweat glands start working to lower the body temperature, then homeostasis is again sustained. The opposite of becoming too hot is becoming too cold. On a freezing winter day, the body temperature starts to decrease, so the brain sends a message to the muscles to shiver which, in turn, creates heat to warm the body up. This example of homeostasis is a negative feedback loop.

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Since homeostasis needs to be maintained at a constant state, organ systems within the body ultimately control this. One way is by intrinsic regulation, when the regulatory mechanism is in the organ already. The other way is extrinsic regulation, when the organ is regulated by the nervous and/or the endocrine system. The endocrine system releases horomones to help regulate homeostasis. An example of a horomone is gluclose, which the body's cells use as their source of energy. The nervous system works hand in hand with the endocrine system to help regulate the body. Nerves are the main component of the nervous system. The control of the endocrine system relies on messages from the nervous system. The constant homeostasis is becoming more complicated, but everything must work together in order for it to be maintained.

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There are four different kinds of tissues that compose the body. Tissues are made up of cells which are the basic unit of life. A group of cells that have the same basic function are called tissues. Tissues make up organs, and organs help to maintain homeostasis. The four main types are: skeletal, nervous, epithelial, and connective.


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Nervous tissues are made up of nerve cells. Neurons are the main component of a nerve cell which create and send electrical conductivity throughout the body. Neuroglial cells are special supporting cells of the spinal cord and the brain. The neuron is a complex cell which is composed of three main parts: The axon, which is the extension from the cell which sends a message from the body of the cell to another cell; Dendrites, which are like arms reaching out from the cell body that receive messages from other cells; and the cell body, which is the main part of a neuron cell which contains the nucleus. Without nervous tissue, the body would not maintain homeostasis.

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Epithelial cells have numerous types. They cover or line almost body surfaces and glands. Epithelial cells can be described by their layers and then by their shape. The cells that are only one layer thick are called simple membranes. Stratified membranes are cells that are comprised of more then one layer. Columnar cells are cells that are tall and skinnier, much like a column. Squamous cells look rather flat, but they can be more irregular in shape. Cuboidal cells can resemble the shape of a square, and they are as tall as they are wide. Epethelial cells are found all over the body and help protect or provide a barrier for wherever the cells are.

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Muscle tissue is meant to be used for contraction. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth are the different kinds of muscle tissue. Striations are like lines or stripes across the muscle tissue. Smooth muscle does not contain striations and is most commonly found in the digestive tract and blood vessels. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart, contains myocardial cells, and is striated. Skeletal muscle are usually connected to the bones which causes movement of the skeleton. Each kind of muscle tissue has its own unique way of contraction.

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Connective tissue is abundant throughout the body. A large amount of extracellular material between different types of connective tissue cells, makes up connective tissue. There are four types of connective tissue. Bone is usually in a circular type pattern which surround blood vessels. Cartilage is made up of chondrocytes which are found usually at the articular ends of the bones, which form joints. Adipose tissue is loose connective tissue, that contain adipocytes which breakdown fat. Blood is considered a connective tissue because most of its volume is plasma. Connective tissue proper has four subtypes: dense fibrous, adipose, loose, and others. Without connective tissue in our body, we would not be able to move or maintain homeostasis.

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It is vital for a nurse to be educated on every part of the human body, for that is a nurse's specialty. If I was a nurse and I didn't know how homeostasis was being disrupted, I wouldn't be able to give feedback to the doctor when he/she asks me questions about my patient. Without this understanding, I would not be able to act accordingly when the doctor then gave me information as to what is wrong or how to treat the patient. A specific example would be if a patient who was diabetic came in with symptoms of light headedness, dizziness, and weak feeling, I should assume he or she is hypoglycemic. Since the patient's blood sugar is too low, equilibruim is not being kept at a constant level. Every human body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay healthy. Being knowledgable on the many organ systems and the tissues that compose our body is a vital role for a nurse. I need to be able to communicate with the doctor and the patient, and if I don't know what is wrong, I am not doing my job.

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A negative feedback loop can be described as the opposite effects that are influenced by the effectors. An example of a negative feedback loop is like the temperature in the human body. An example of a negative feedback inhibition if the completed circle of hormone glucose in the body. When you eat, your blood glucose level increases, because of the carbohydrates in the food you eat. In the pancreas, the Islets of Langerhans increase their production of insulin to make sure the glucose level doesn't become too high in your body. Cells then increase their ingestion of the glucose, which is their source of energy. After the cells ingest the gluclose, then the levels decrease. On the other hand, when you don't eat and aren't receiving enough carbohydrates, the glucose level of the blood decreases. All the cells in your body need glucose to work, so they slow down when there isn't enough energy to perform their jobs. The antagonistic horomone, glucagon is then released. Glucagon makes the liver break down glycogen, and then it secretes glucose. This negative feedback inhibition is a vital role for the body to maintain it's homeostasis.

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